1038. Divided co-ownership of an immovable is established by publication of a declaration under which ownership of the immovable is divided into fractions belonging to one or several persons.
1039. Upon the publication of the declaration of co-ownership, the co-owners as a body constitute a legal person, the objects of which are the preservation of the immovable, the maintenance and administration of the common portions, the protection of the rights appurtenant to the immovable or the co-ownership, as well as all business in the common interest. The legal person must, in particular, see to it that the work necessary for the preservation and maintenance of the immovable is carried out.
The legal person is called a syndicate.
1040. Divided co-ownership of an immovable that is built by an emphyteuta or that is subject to superficies may be established if the unexpired term of the right, at the time of publication of the declaration, is more than 50 years.
In cases arising under the first paragraph, each co-owner, dividedly and proportionately to the relative value of his fraction, is liable for the divisible obligations of the emphyteuta or superficiary, as the case may be, towards the owner of the immovable subject to emphyteusis or superficies. The syndicate assumes the indivisible obligations.
1041. The relative value of each of the fractions of the divided co-ownership is established with reference to the value of all the fractions together, taking into account the nature, destination, dimensions and location of the private portion of each fraction, but not its use.
The relative value is determined in the declaration.
1042. Those portions of the buildings and land that are owned by a specific co-owner and are for his exclusive use are called the private portions.
1043. Those portions of the buildings and land that are owned by all the co-owners and serve for their common use are called the common portions.
However, some of the portions may serve for the use of certain, or only one, of the co-owners. The rules regarding the common portions apply to the common portions that have restricted use.
1044. The following are presumed to be common portions: the ground, yards, verandas or balconies, parks and gardens, access ways, stairways and elevators, passageways and halls, common service areas, parking and storage areas, basements, foundations and main walls of buildings, and common equipment and apparatus, such as the central heating and air-conditioning systems and the piping and wiring, including that which runs through private portions.
1045. Partitions or walls that are not part of the foundations and main walls of a building but which separate a private portion from a common portion or from another private portion are presumed common.
1046. Each co-owner has an undivided right of ownership in the common portions. His share of the common portions is equal to the relative value of his fraction.
1047. Each fraction constitutes a distinct entity and may be alienated in whole or in part; the alienation includes, in each case, the share of the common portions appurtenant to the fraction, as well as the right to use the common portions for restricted use, where applicable.
1048. The share of the common portions appurtenant to a fraction may not, separately from the private portion of the fraction, be the subject of alienation or an action in partition.
1049. Alienation of a divided part of a private portion is without effect unless the declaration of co-ownership and the cadastral plan have been altered prior to the alienation so as to create a new fraction, describe it, give it a separate cadastral number and determine its relative value, or to record the alterations made to the boundaries between contiguous private portions.
1050. Each fraction forms a distinct entity for the purposes of property assessment and taxation.
The syndicate shall be impleaded in the case of any judicial contestation of the assessment of a fraction by a co-owner.
1051. Malgré les articles 2650 et 2662, l’hypothèque, les sûretés additionnelles qui s’y greffent ou les priorités existantes sur l’ensemble de l’immeuble détenu en copropriété, lors de l’inscription de la déclaration de copropriété, se divisent entre les fractions suivant la valeur relative de chacune d’elles ou suivant toute autre proportion prévue.
1052. A declaration of co-ownership comprises the act constituting the co-ownership, the by-laws of the immovable and a description of the fractions.
1053. An act constituting the co-ownership defines the destination of the immovable, of the private portions and of the common portions.
The act also specifies the relative value of each fraction, indicating how that value was determined, the share of the common expenses and the number of votes attached to each fraction.
The act also specifies the respective powers and duties of the board of directors of the syndicate and of the general meeting of the co-owners and provides any other agreement regarding the immovable or its private or common portions, including any penal clause applicable for contravening the declaration of co-ownership.
1054. The by-laws of an immovable contain the rules on the enjoyment, use and maintenance of the private and common portions, and those on the operation and administration of the co-ownership.
The by-laws also deal with the procedure of assessment and collection of contributions to the common expenses.
1055. A description of the fractions contains the cadastral description of the private portions and common portions of the immovable.
Such a description also contains a description of the real rights charging the immovable or existing in its favour, other than hypothecs and additional security accessory thereto.
1056. No declaration of co-ownership may impose any restriction on the rights of the co-owners except restrictions justified by the destination, characteristics or location of the immovable.
1057. The by-laws of the immovable may be set up against the lessee or occupant of a private portion upon his being given a copy of the by-laws or the amendments to them by the co-owner or, if not by him, by the syndicate.
1058. Unless express provision is made therefor in the act constituting the co-ownership, no fraction may be held by several persons each having a periodic and successive right of enjoyment in the fraction, nor may a fraction be alienated for that purpose.
Where the act makes provision for a periodic and successive right of enjoyment, it shall indicate the number of fractions that may be held in this way, the occupancy periods, the maximum number of persons who may hold these fractions, and the rights and obligations of the occupants.
1059. A declaration of co-ownership, and any amendments to the act constituting the co-ownership or the description of the fractions, shall be in the form of notarial act en minute.
The declaration shall be signed by all the owners of the immovable, by the emphyteuta or the superficiary, if any, and by all the creditors holding hypothecs on the immovable; amendments are signed by the syndicate.
1060. La déclaration, ainsi que les modifications apportées à l’acte constitutif de copropriété et à l’état descriptif des fractions, sont présentées exclusivement en français au Bureau de la publicité foncière. La déclaration est inscrite au registre foncier, sous les numéros d’immatriculation des parties communes et des parties privatives; les modifications ne sont inscrites que sous le numéro d’immatriculation des parties communes, à moins qu’elles ne touchent directement une partie privative. Quant aux modifications apportées au règlement de l’immeuble, elles doivent l’être de manière expresse, dans un procès-verbal ou une résolution écrite des copropriétaires, et il suffit qu’elles soient déposées au registre tenu par le syndicat conformément à l’article 1070. Ces modifications doivent être apportées exclusivement en français.
The emphyteuta or superficiary, if any, shall give notice of the registration to the owner of the immovable under emphyteusis or on which superficies has been established.
1061. The registration of an act concerning a private portion is valid with regard to the share of the common portions appurtenant to it, without any requirement to make an entry under the registration number of the common portions.
1062. The declaration of co-ownership binds the co-owners, their successors and the persons who signed it, and produces its effects towards them from the time of its registration.
1063. Chaque copropriétaire dispose de sa fraction; il use et jouit librement de sa partie privative et des parties communes, à la condition de respecter le règlement de l’immeuble et de ne porter atteinte ni aux droits des autres copropriétaires ni à la destination de l’immeuble.
1064. Each co-owner has the disposal of his fraction; he has free use and enjoyment of his private portion and of the common portions, provided he complies with the by-laws of the immovable and does not impair the rights of the other co-owners or the destination of the immovable.
The declaration of co-ownership may determine a different apportionment of the co-owners’ contribution to the expenses for major repairs to common portions for restricted use and for the replacement of those portions.
1064.1. Chacun des copropriétaires doit souscrire une assurance couvrant sa responsabilité envers les tiers dont le montant obligatoire minimal est déterminé par règlement du gouvernement.
1065. A person who acquires a fraction, by whatever means, including the exercise of a hypothecary right, shall notify the syndicate within 15 days.
A co-owner who leases his private portion shall, within the same time, notify the syndicate. The co-owner shall give the name of the lessee, the term of the lease and the date on which he gave the lessee a copy of the by-laws of the immovable. The same applies, with the necessary modifications, where the private portion is otherwise occupied.
1066. No co-owner may interfere with the carrying out, even inside his private portion, of work required for the preservation of the immovable decided upon by the syndicate or of urgent work.
Lorsque la partie privative est louée, le syndicat donne au locataire, le cas échéant, les avis prévus par les articles 1922 et 1931 relatifs aux améliorations et aux travaux. Lorsque la partie privative est occupée autrement que par location, le syndicat donne à l’occupant un avis écrit indiquant la nature des améliorations et des travaux non urgents, la date à laquelle ils débuteront et l’estimation de leur durée, ainsi que, s’il y a lieu, la période d’évacuation nécessaire.
1067. A co-owner who, as a result of work carried out, suffers injury in the form of a permanent diminution in the value of his fraction, a grave disturbance to enjoyment, even if temporary, or through deterioration, is entitled to obtain an indemnity from the syndicate if the syndicate ordered the work or, if it did not, from the co-owners who did the work.
1068. Every co-owner may, within five years from the day of registration of the declaration of co-ownership, apply to the court for a revision, for the future, of the relative value of the fractions and of the apportionment of the common expenses.
The right to apply for a revision may be exercised only if there exists, between the relative value assigned to a fraction or the share of common expenses allocated thereto and the value or share that should have been established, according to the criteria provided in the declaration of co-ownership, a difference in excess of one-tenth in favour of another co-owner or to the prejudice of the applicant co-owner.
Non en vigueur
1068.1. A person who sells a fraction shall, in due time, give the promisor a certificate of the syndicate attesting to the condition of the immovable held in co-ownership, whose form and content are determined by government regulation.
For that purpose, the syndicate gives the certificate to a co-owner who so requests, within 15 days.
Those obligations exist from the appointment of a new board of directors, after the developer loses control of the syndicate.
1068.2. A person who promises to buy a fraction may request the syndicate to provide him with the documents or information concerning the immovable and the syndicate that will enable him to give enlightened consent. The syndicate is bound, subject to the provisions relating to the protection of privacy, to provide them with diligence to the promisor, at the latter’s expense.
The syndicate shall send the owner of the fraction or his successors the documents or information it has provided to the promisor.
1069. A person who acquires a fraction of an immovable under divided co-ownership, by whatever means, including the exercise of a hypothecary right, is bound to pay all common expenses due with respect to that fraction, with interest, at the time of the acquisition.
A person contemplating the acquisition of such a fraction may request from the syndicate of co-owners a statement of the common expenses due with respect to the fraction and the syndicate is thereupon authorized to provide the statement to him, subject to the syndicate giving prior notice to the owner of the fraction or his successors; in such a case, the prospective acquirer is bound to pay the common expenses only if the statement is provided to him by the syndicate within 15 days of the request.
The statement provided is adjusted to the last annual budget of the co-owners.
1070. Among the registers of the co-ownership, the syndicate keeps at the disposal of the co-owners a register containing the name and mailing address of each co-owner; the register may also contain other personal information concerning a co-owner or another occupant of the immovable if he expressly consents to it. In addition, the register contains the minutes of the meetings of the co-owners and of the board of directors, the resolutions in writing, the by-laws of the immovable and any amendments to them, and the financial statements.
The register also contains the declaration of co-ownership, the copies of contracts to which the syndicate is a party, a copy of the cadastral plan, the plans and specifications of and location certificates for the building if they are available, the maintenance log, the contingency fund study and all other documents and information relating to the immovable and the syndicate or prescribed by government regulation.
In addition, the register contains a description of the private portions that is sufficiently precise to allow any improvements made by co-owners to be identified. The same description may be valid for two or more portions having the same characteristics.
1070.1. It must be possible to consult the register and documents kept at the disposal of the co-owners in the presence of a director or a person designated for that purpose by the board of directors, at reasonable hours and according to the rules provided in the by-laws of the immovable. Every co-owner is entitled to obtain a copy of the content of the register and of any such documents for a reasonable cost.
A government regulation may prescribe other conditions, rules or restrictions relating to consultation of the register, of the documents to be kept at the disposal of the co-owners, and of the information they contain.
1070.1.1. Le registre et les documents tenus à la disposition des copropriétaires ainsi que tout document rédigé par le syndicat à l’intention d’un copropriétaire doivent être rédigés en français.
L’Office québécois de la langue française veille à l’application du premier alinéa comme s’il s’agissait d’une disposition de la Charte de la langue française (chapitre C-11).
Non en vigueur
1070.2. The board of directors causes a maintenance log to be established for the immovable which describes, in particular, maintenance done and maintenance required. The board of directors keeps the log up to date and has it reviewed periodically.
The form and content of the maintenance log and the manner in which it is kept and reviewed, as well as the persons who may establish and review it, are determined by government regulation.
1071. The syndicate establishes, according to the estimated cost of major repairs and the cost of replacement of common portions, a contingency fund to be used exclusively for such repairs and replacement. The fund must be partly liquid and be available at short notice, and its capital must be guaranteed. The syndicate is the owner of the fund, and the fund’s use is determined by the board of directors.
1071.1. Le syndicat constitue un fonds d’auto assurance liquide et disponible à court terme. Ce fonds est la propriété du syndicat.
Le fonds d’auto assurance est affecté au paiement des franchises prévues par les assurances souscrites par le syndicat.
Il est également affecté à la réparation du préjudice occasionné aux biens dans lesquels le syndicat a un intérêt assurable, lorsque le fonds de prévoyance ou une indemnité d’assurance ne peuvent y pourvoir.
Le fonds d’auto assurance est établi en fonction de ces franchises et d’un montant additionnel raisonnable pour pourvoir aux autres paiements auxquels il est affecté.
1072. Annuellement, le conseil d’administration fixe, après consultation de l’assemblée des copropriétaires, la contribution de ceux-ci aux charges communes, après avoir déterminé les sommes nécessaires pour faire face aux charges découlant de la copropriété et de l’exploitation de l’immeuble ainsi que les sommes à verser au fonds de prévoyance et au fonds d’auto assurance.
Le gouvernement détermine par règlement les modalités selon lesquelles est établie la contribution minimale des copropriétaires au fonds d’auto assurance.
The contribution of the co-owners to the contingency fund is at least 5% of their contribution for common expenses. In fixing the contribution, the rights of any co-owner in the common portions for restricted use may be taken into account.
The syndicate, without delay, notifies each co-owner of the amount of his contribution and the date when it is payable.
1072.1. The board of directors shall consult the general meeting of the co-owners before deciding on any special contribution to the common expenses.
1073. Le syndicat a un intérêt assurable dans tout l’immeuble, y compris les parties privatives. Il doit souscrire des assurances, prévoyant une franchise raisonnable, contre les risques usuels couvrant la totalité de l’immeuble, à l’exclusion des améliorations apportées par un copropriétaire à sa partie lorsqu’elles peuvent être identifiées par rapport à la description de cette partie. Le montant de l’assurance souscrite doit pourvoir à la reconstruction de l’immeuble conformément aux normes, usages et règles de l’art applicables à ce moment; ce montant doit être évalué au moins tous les cinq ans par un membre d’un ordre professionnel désigné par règlement du gouvernement.
Il doit aussi souscrire une assurance couvrant sa responsabilité envers les tiers ainsi que celle des membres de son conseil d’administration et du gérant, de même que du président et du secrétaire de l’assemblée des copropriétaires et des autres personnes chargées de voir à son bon déroulement.
Le gouvernement peut, par règlement, déterminer des cas selon lesquels une franchise est considérée comme déraisonnable. De plus, un contrat d’assurance souscrit par un syndicat couvre de plein droit au moins les risques prévus par règlement du gouvernement, à moins que la police ou un avenant n’indique expressément et en caractères apparents ceux de ces risques qui sont exclus. Ces règlements peuvent établir des catégories de bâtiments, notamment en fonction de leur taille, de leur valeur et de leur situation géographique.
1074. A co-owner’s non-compliance with a condition of the insurance contract may not be set up against the syndicate.
1074.1. When a loss occurs which falls under the coverage provided for by a property insurance contract entered into by the syndicate and the syndicate decides not to avail itself of the insurance, it shall with dispatch see that the damage caused to the insured property is repaired.
A syndicate that does not avail itself of insurance may not sue the following persons for the damages for which it would otherwise have been indemnified by the insurance:
1° un copropriétaire;
2° une personne qui fait partie de la maison d’un copropriétaire;
3° une personne à l’égard de laquelle le syndicat est tenu de souscrire une assurance en couvrant la responsabilité.
1074.2. Les sommes engagées par le syndicat pour le paiement des franchises et la réparation du préjudice occasionné aux biens dans lesquels celui-ci a un intérêt assurable ne peuvent être recouvrées des copropriétaires autrement que par leur contribution aux charges communes, sous réserve des dommages-intérêts qu’il peut obtenir du copropriétaire tenu de réparer le préjudice causé par sa faute et, dans les cas prévus au présent code, le préjudice causé par le fait ou la faute d’une autre personne ou par le fait des biens qu’il a sous sa garde.
Any stipulation which is inconsistent with the provisions of the first paragraph is deemed unwritten.
1074.3. Where insurance against the same risks and covering the same property has been taken out separately by the syndicate and a co-owner, the insurance taken out by the syndicate constitutes primary insurance.
1075. L’indemnité due au syndicat à la suite d’une perte importante est, malgré l’article 2494, versée au fiduciaire nommé dans l’acte constitutif de copropriété ou, à défaut, à un fiduciaire que le syndicat doit alors désigner sans délai.
The indemnity shall be used to repair or rebuild the immovable, unless the syndicate decides to terminate the co-ownership, in which case the trustee, after determining each co-owner’s share of the indemnity according to the relative value of his fraction, pays the prior and hypothecary creditors out of that share according to the rules in article 2497. For each of the co-owners, he remits the balance of the indemnity to the liquidator of the syndicate with his report.
Un règlement du gouvernement peut déterminer les critères permettant de qualifier une perte comme importante.
1075.1. An insurer may not, despite article 2474, be subrogated to the rights of any of the following persons against another such person:
1° le syndicat;
2° un copropriétaire;
3° une personne qui fait partie de la maison d’un copropriétaire;
4° une personne à l’égard de laquelle le syndicat est tenu de souscrire une assurance en couvrant la responsabilité.
An exception to this rule applies in the case of bodily or moral injury or if the injury is due to an intentional or gross fault.
1076. The syndicate may, if authorized to do so, acquire or alienate fractions, common portions or other real rights.
A private portion does not cease to be private by the fact that the fraction is acquired by the syndicate, but the syndicate has no vote for that portion at the general meeting and the total number of votes that may be cast is reduced accordingly.
1076.1. The syndicate may grant a movable hypothec only after obtaining the authorization of the general meeting of the co-owners.
1077. The syndicate is liable for damage caused to the co-owners or third persons by faulty design, construction defects or lack of maintenance of the common portions, without prejudice to any recursory action.
1078. A judgment condemning the syndicate to pay a sum of money is executory against the syndicate and against each of the persons who were co-owners at the time the cause of action arose, proportionately to the relative value of his fraction.
Ce jugement ne peut être exécuté sur le fonds de prévoyance, sauf pour une dette née de la réparation de l’immeuble ou du remplacement des parties communes, non plus que sur le fonds d’auto assurance, à moins que le jugement n’ait pour objet le recouvrement d’une somme au paiement de laquelle ce fonds est affecté.
1079. The syndicate may demand the resiliation of the lease of a private portion, after notifying the lessor and the lessee, where the non-performance of an obligation by the lessee causes serious injury to a co-owner or to another occupant of the immovable.
The syndicate may, for the same reasons, after notifying the co-owner and the borrower, demand the termination of a loan for use of a private portion.
1080. Where the refusal of a co-owner to comply with the declaration of co-ownership causes serious and irreparable injury to the syndicate or to one of the co-owners, either of them may apply to the court for an injunction ordering the owner to comply with the declaration.
Si le copropriétaire transgresse l’injonction ou refuse d’y obéir, le tribunal peut, outre les autres peines qu’il peut imposer, ordonner la vente de la fraction conformément aux dispositions du Code de procédure civile (chapitre C-25.01) relatives à la vente du bien d’autrui.
1081. The syndicate may institute any action on the grounds of latent defects, faulty design or construction defects of the immovable or defects in the ground. In a case where the faults or defects affect the private portions, the syndicate may not proceed until it has obtained the authorization of the co-owners of those portions.
Where the defendant sets up the failure to act with diligence against an action based on a latent defect, such diligence is appraised in respect of the syndicate or a co-owner from the day of the election of a new board of directors, after the developer loses control of the syndicate.
1082. he syndicate, within six months of being notified by the owner of an immovable under emphyteusis or superficies that he intends to transfer by onerous title his rights in the immovable, may acquire such rights in preference to any other potential acquirer during that period. If it is not notified of the planned transfer, it may, within six months from the time it learns that a third person has acquired the owner’s rights, acquire such rights from that person by reimbursing him for the transfer price and the costs he has paid.
1083. The syndicate may join an association of co-ownership syndicates formed for the creation, administration and maintenance of common services for several immovables held in co-ownership, or for the pursuit of common interests.
1083.1. The syndicate may, at its own expense, obtain the plans and specifications of the immovable that are in the possession of an architect or engineer, who is bound to provide them to the syndicate on request.
1084. The composition of the board of directors of the syndicate, the mode of appointment, replacement and remuneration of the directors as well as the other terms and conditions of their office are fixed in the by-laws of the immovable.
The court, upon application by a co-owner, may appoint or replace a director and fix the terms and conditions of his office if there is no provision therefor in the by-laws or if it is impossible to proceed in the manner prescribed therein.
1084.1. Les administrateurs peuvent participer à une réunion du conseil d’administration à l’aide de moyens permettant à tous les participants de communiquer immédiatement entre eux.
Les administrateurs qui participent à une telle réunion peuvent y voter par tout moyen permettant, à la fois, de recueillir les votes de façon à ce qu’ils puissent être vérifiés subséquemment et de préserver le caractère secret du vote, lorsqu’un tel vote est demandé.
1085. The day-to-day administration of the syndicate may be entrusted to a manager who may, but need not be, chosen from among the co-owners.
The manager acts as an administrator of the property of others charged with simple administration.
1086. Any co-ower who has not paid his share of the common expenses for more than three months is disqualified for the office of director. Such disqualification ceases as soon as he has paid all the common expenses due; he may then once again be elected as a director.
The syndicate may replace a director or manager who, being a co-owner, neglects to pay his contribution to the common expenses.
1086.1. The board of directors shall send to the co-owners the minutes of every decision made at a meeting or every resolution in writing passed by the board within 30 days of the meeting or of the passage of the resolution.
1086.2. Any co-owner or director may apply to the court to annul or, exceptionally, to amend a decision of the board of directors if the decision is biased or was made with intent to injure the co-owners or in contempt of their rights. The action is forfeited unless instituted within 90 days after the decision of the board of directors.
1086.3. In addition to the rules in article 341, where the directors are prevented from acting as a majority or in the specified proportion owing to an impediment or the systematic opposition of some of them, the court may, on the application of a director or co-owner, make any order it sees fit in the circumstances.
1086.4. Le tribunal peut, si les circonstances le justifient, remplacer le conseil d’administration par un administrateur provisoire et déterminer les conditions et modalités de son administration.
1087. The notice calling the annual general meeting of the co-owners shall be accompanied, in addition to the balance sheet, by the income statement for the preceding financial period, the statement of debts and claims, the budget forecast, any draft amendment to the declaration of co-ownership and a note on the essential terms and conditions of any proposed contract or planned work.
1088. Within five days of receiving notice of a general meeting of the co-owners, any co-owner may cause a question to be placed on the agenda.
Before the meeting is held, the board of directors gives written notice to the co-owners of the questions newly placed on the agenda.
1088.1. Une assemblée peut être tenue à l’aide de moyens permettant à tous les participants de communiquer immédiatement entre eux.
1089. Co-owners holding a majority of the votes constitute a quorum at general meetings.
Si le quorum n’est pas atteint, l’assemblée est alors ajournée à une autre date, dont avis est donné à tous les copropriétaires; les trois quarts des membres présents ou représentés à la nouvelle assemblée y constituent le quorum. Cependant, les décisions visées à l’article 1097 ne peuvent être prises à cette nouvelle assemblée que si ces membres représentent au moins la majorité des voix de tous les copropriétaires.
A meeting at which there is no longer a quorum shall be adjourned if a co-owner requests it.
1089.1. Les copropriétaires qui participent à une assemblée à l’aide de moyens permettant à tous les participants de communiquer immédiatement entre eux peuvent y voter par tout moyen permettant, à la fois, de recueillir les votes de façon à ce qu’ils puissent être vérifiés subséquemment et de préserver le caractère secret du vote, lorsqu’un tel vote est demandé.
1090. Each co-owner is entitled to a number of votes at a general meeting proportionate to the relative value of his fraction. Co-owners of a fraction held in indivision vote in proportion to their undivided shares.
The co-owner of a fraction held in indivision who is absent from a general meeting is presumed to have mandated the other co-owners of that fraction to represent him, unless the absentee has, in writing, mandated a third person for that purpose or has indicated his refusal to be represented. The absentee’s voting rights are partitioned proportionately to the rights of the other co-owners in the indivision.
1091. Where, in a co-ownership comprising fewer than five fractions, a co-owner is entitled to more than one-half of all the votes available to the co-owners, the number of votes to which he is entitled at a meeting is reduced to the total number of votes to which the other co-owners present or represented at the meeting are entitled.
1092. At the end of the second and third years after the date of registration of the declaration of co-ownership, a developer of a co-ownership comprising five or more fractions is not entitled to more than 60% of all the votes of the co-owners, in addition to the votes attached to the fraction he occupies.
The limit is thereafter reduced to 25%.
1093. Any person who, at the time of registration of a declaration of co-ownership, owns at least one-half of all the fractions, or his successors, other than a person who in good faith acquires a fraction for a price equal to its market value with the intention of occupying it, is considered to be a developer.
1094. Any co-owner who has not paid his share of the common expenses for more than three months is deprived of his right to vote. He may once again exercise that right as soon as he has paid all the common expenses he owes.
1095. Only assignments of the voting rights of a co-owner which have been declared to the syndicate may be set up against it.
1096. Decisions of the syndicate, including a decision to amend the by-laws of the immovable or to correct a clerical error in the declaration of co-ownership, are taken by a majority vote of the co-owners present or represented at the meeting.
1097. Decisions concerning the following matters are made by co-owners representing three-quarters of the votes of the co-owners present or represented:
1° Les actes d’acquisition ou d’aliénation immobilière par le syndicat;
2° Les travaux de transformation, d’agrandissement ou d’amélioration des parties communes, ainsi que la répartition du coût de ces travaux et la constitution d’une hypothèque mobilière pour les financer;
3° La construction de bâtiments pour créer de nouvelles fractions;
4° La modification de l’acte constitutif de copropriété ou de l’état descriptif des fractions;
5° La modification de la description des parties privatives visée à l’article 1070.
1098. Decisions on the following matters require a majority of three-quarters of the co-owners representing 90% of the votes of all the co-owners:
1° Qui changent la destination de l’immeuble;
2° Qui autorisent l’aliénation des parties communes dont la conservation est nécessaire au maintien de la destination de l’immeuble;
3° Qui modifient la déclaration de copropriété pour permettre la détention d’une fraction par plusieurs personnes ayant un droit de jouissance périodique et successif.
1099. Where the number of votes to which a co-owner or a developer is entitled is reduced, or where a co-owner or a developer is deprived of his right to vote, the total number of votes available to all the co-owners is reduced by the same number.
1100. The co-owners of contiguous private portions may alter the boundaries between their private portions without obtaining the approval of the general meeting provided they obtain the consent of their hypothecary creditors and of the syndicate. No alteration may increase or decrease the relative value of the group of private portions altered or the total of the voting rights attached to them.
The syndicate amends the declaration of co-ownership and the cadastral plan at the expense of the co-owners contemplated in the first paragraph; the act of amendment shall be accompanied by the consents of the creditors, the co-owners and the syndicate.
1101. Any stipulation in the declaration of co-ownership that changes the number of votes required to make a decision under this chapter is deemed unwritten.
1102. Any decision of the syndicate which, contrary to the declaration of co-ownership, imposes on a co-owner a change in the relative value of his fraction or a change of destination of his private portion is without effect.
1102.1. The board of directors shall send to the co-owners the minutes of every general meeting or every resolution in writing passed by a general meeting within 30 days of the general meeting or of the passage of the resolution.
1103. Any co-owner may apply to the court to annul or, exceptionally, to amend a decision of the general meeting if the decision is biased, if it was taken with intent to injure the co-owners or in contempt of their rights, or if an error was made in counting the votes.
The action is forfeited unless instituted within 90 days after the meeting.
If the action is futile or vexatious, the court may condemn the plaintiff to pay damages.
1103.1. Where the co-owners are prevented from acting as a majority or in the specified proportion owing to an impediment or the systematic opposition of some of them, the court may, on the application of a co-owner, make any order it sees fit in the circumstances.
1104. Within 90 days from the day on which the developer of a co-ownership ceases to hold a majority of votes in the general meeting of the co-owners, the board of directors shall call a special meeting of the co-owners to appoint a new board of directors.
If the meeting is not called within 90 days, any co-owner may call it.
1105. The board of directors renders account of its administration at the special meeting.
It produces the financial statements, which shall be accompanied with the comments of an accountant on the financial situation of the syndicate. The accountant shall, in his report to the co-owners, indicate any irregularity that has come to his attention.
The financial statements shall be audited on the application of co-owners representing 40% of the votes of all the co-owners. The application may be made at any time, even before the meeting.
1106. The accountant has a right of access at all times to the books, accounts and vouchers concerning the co-ownership.
He may require from the developer or an administrator any information or explanation that he considers necessary for the performance of his duties.
1106.1. Within 30 days of the special meeting, the developer shall provide the following to the syndicate:
Non en vigueur
1° le carnet d’entretien de l’immeuble et l’étude du fonds de prévoyance;
2° lorsque l’immeuble est neuf ou qu’il a été rénové par le promoteur, les plans et devis indiquant, le cas échéant, les modifications substantielles qui y ont été apportées pendant la construction ou la rénovation par rapport aux plans et devis d’origine;
3° les autres plans et devis relatifs à l’immeuble qui sont disponibles;
4° les certificats de localisation relatifs à l’immeuble qui sont disponibles;
5° la description des parties privatives prévue à l’article 1070;
6° tout autre document ou tout autre renseignement prévu par règlement du gouvernement.
The developer is liable for any injury resulting from his failure to provide such documents and information.
1107. The new board of directors may, within 60 days after the election, terminate without penalty a contract entered into before the election by the syndicate for maintenance of the immovable or for other services, if the term of the contract exceeds one year.
1108. Co-ownership of an immovable may be terminated by a decision of a majority of three-quarters of the co-owners representing 90% of the votes of all the co-owners.
The decision to terminate the co-ownership shall be recorded in writing and signed by the syndicate and the persons holding hypothecs on the immovable or part thereof. This decision is registered in the land register under the registration numbers of the common portions and private portions.
1109. The syndicate is liquidated according to the rules of Book One on the liquidation of legal persons.
For that purpose, the liquidator is seized of the immovable and of all the rights and obligations of the co-owners in the immovable, in addition to the property of the syndicate.